|Carbon dioxide||Particulates - PM10/ PM2.5|
|Carbon monoxide||Relative humidity|
|Hydrogen sulphide||Volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene)|
|Arsenic||Kinematic viscosity||Sulphur content|
|Ash content||Lead||Total acid number (TAN)|
|Density||Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)||Wear metals|
|Dirt/sediments by mf||Pour point||Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)|
|Flash point (COC)||Sediments||Chromium|
|Gross calorific value||Specific gravity|
|Ambient / workzone||Oxygen||Flue gas temperature|
|Arsenic||Particulates - PM10/ PM2.5||Hydrogen sulphide|
|Benzene||Respirable suspended particulate (RSPM)||Nitrogen dioxide|
|Benzo(a)pyrene (as BaP) - particulate phase||Sulphur dioxide||Oxygen|
|Carbon dioxide||Suspended particulate matter||Particulate matter|
|Carbon monoxide||Volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene)||Sulphur dioxide|
|Lead||Carbon dioxide||Velocity & flow|
|Nitrogen dioxide||Carbon monoxide|
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a heterogeneous refuse from households, non-hazardous solid waste from industrial, commercial and institutional establishments, market waste, yard waste and road sweepings. It poses a great health and environmental hazard and needs to be scientifically managed in terms of collection, transfer, treatment and disposal.
Effective MSW Management depends upon an appropriate distribution of responsibilities among many stakeholders including local self-government. Like all the waste management strategies, MSW also first needs to be fully characterized over all the seasons and localities.
|Ash content||Mercury||Sulphur content|
|Cadmium||Moisture Content||Total chromium|
|Carbon nitrogen ratio||Nickel||Total nitrogen|
|Chlorides||pH||Total organic carbon|
|Electrical conductivity||Physical characterization||Water soluble solids|
|Gross calorific value||Potassium||Zinc|
All forms of life rely on an active hydrosphere and human beings are particularly interested in the fresh water hydrosphere as the rivers are of immense importance geologically, biologically, historically and culturally. Water quality monitoring is one of the first steps required in the rational development and management of water resources to maintain their wholesomeness and pristine.
In the field of water quality management, there has been a steady evolution in procedures for designing system for the designated best use. The monitoring comprises all activities to obtain information, including water characteristics, with respect to the water system.
It is a fact that the natural water courses are exposed to variety of pollution at various degrees; hence it becomes essential to measure the suspected contaminants for their management.
|Barium||Faecal coliforms||Reactive silica|
|Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)||Heavy metals||Sulphates|
|Chemical oxygen demand (COD)||Manganese||Total dissolved solids|
|Conductivity||Total oil & grease|
|Dissolved oxygen (DO)||Total phosphorus|
|Total suspended solids|